The soaring peaks of South Africa's Drakensberg mountain range run in a ragged sickle shape along the eastern part of the country. Their highest summits stand shoulder to shoulder with Lesotho's Maloti mountains, intercepting any clouds dragging rain up from the subtropical Indian Ocean coastline.

Together they create the largest water factory in Africa. Safeguarding this critical water catchment area is the Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Project. The towering castles of basalt and pristine grassy uplands funnel the rain steadily downwards in a series of clear streams feeding the east-flowing Tugela and Umzimvubu rivers, as well as South Africa's mother river, the Orange, which flows west.

Peer upwards at the Drakensberg's massive Amphitheatre on South Africa's side of the Transfrontier Project and you will see the thin thread of the Tugela River tumbling off the edge - the second highest waterfall in the world.

The craggy basalt montains, flanked by sandstone foothills, are the last remnants of lava that poured out the ground as Gondwana split apart 180 million years ago. These sensitive highlands are also home to some of southern Africa's rarest birds - the wattled crane, bald ibis and the bone-eating bearded vulture.

The alpine vegetation of the Drakensberg transfrontier nature reserves is very sensitive to disturbance (by overgrazing or trampling). This is also a sanctuary for various wetland springs, mires, seeps and bogs that are a crucial part of the 'water factory'.

One of the best times to visit the Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Project is between November and February, when the grasslands are often ablaze with flowers - unusual fynbos proteas, orange African gladioli, red river lilies, the aptly named red-hot pokers (kniphofia), and the more subtle ground orchids.

On the Lesotho side, you may even be lucky enough to spot the very rare spiral aloe, endemic to the region.

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